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   Gaharu Species

Type of Gaharu based on ranking.

1. AQUILARIA SUBINTEGRA, Found at Thailand
2. AQUILARIA CRASSNA, Found at Thailand, Cambodia, Loas, Vietnam
3. AQUILARIA MALACCENSIS, Found at Thailand, India, Indonesia
4. AQUILARIA APICULATA, Found at Philippines
5. AQUILARIA BAILLONIL, Found at Thailand, Combodia, Loas, Vietnam
6. AQUILARIA BANEONSIS, Found at Vietnam
7. AQUILARIA BECCARIAN, Found at Indonesia
8. AQUILARIA BRACHYANTHA, Found at Malaysia
9. AQUILARIA CUMINGIANA, Found at Indonesia, Philippines
10.AQUILARIA FILARIA, Found at Nuegini, China
11.AQUILARIA GRANDIFLORA, Found at China
12.AQUILARIA HILATA, Found at Indonesia, Malaysia
13.AQUILARIA KHASIANA, Found at India
14.AQUILARIA MICROCAPA, Found at Indonesia, Malaysia
15.AQUILARIA ROSTRATA, Found at Malaysia
16.AQUILARIA SINENSIS, Found at China

Comparison of four types of Gaharu based on agarwood oil yield and prices.
1. SUBINTEGRA, Oil = Good, Price = Good.
2. CRASSNA, Oil = Medium, Price = Medium.
3. MALACCENSIS, Oil = Poor, Price = Poor.
4. BAILLONIL, Oil = Poor, Price = Poor.

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Individual species from several genera of the Thymelaceae are associated with the formation of gaharu. These are listed below including associated geographic area (with IUCN Red List Status in blue):
Aquilaria spp.

Besides Aquilaria malaccensis VU A1cd, Cop 13 Prop 49 lists the following agarwood producing species for Aquilaria and Gyrinops (modified by Cropwatch):

N.B. A. malaccensis (Lam.) is now considered by many workers as syn A. agallocha (Roxb.).

A. acuminate (Merr.) Quis: Phillipines
A. apiculata Elmer: Philippines
A. audate (Oken) Merr.: West Papua.
A. baillonii Pierre ex Lancombe: Cambodia
A. banaense Phamhoang Ho: Vietnam VU D2
A. beccariana van Teigh: Sumatra (Palembang), Malayan Peninsula, Borneo. VU A1d
A. brachyantha (Merr.) Hall f.: Philippines
A. citrinaecarpa (Elmer) Hall f.: Philippines
A. crassna Pierre ex Lancombe: Cambodia, Thailand & Vietnam. CR A1cd
A. cumingiana (Decne) Ridl.: Philippines, Moluccas, S. Borneo (Sampit) VU A1d
A. filaria(Oken) Merr.: Philippines, Moluccas, New Guinea (Sorong, Babor & Kapor)
A. grandiflora Bth.: China
A. hirta Ridl.: Malay Peninsula, E. Sumatra, Singapore, Thailand. VU A1d
A. khasiana H. Hall: India (Khasia), Bhutan
A. microcarpa Baill.: Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and throughout Borneo VU A1d
A. moszkowskii Gilg.: Sumatra
[A. ovata Cav.: Thailand]
A. parvifoli (Quis) Ding Ho: Philippines
A. rostrata Ridl. : Malay Peninsula DD
A. secundana DC: Moluccas, Thailand
A. sinensis Merr.: Hong Kong, China VU B1+2cde
A. subintegra Ding Ho: Thailand
A. tomentosa Gilg.: New Guinea
A. urdanetensis (Elmer) Hall: Phillipines
A. yunnanensis SC Huang: China

Gyrinops spp..

Mabberley (1998) indicates nine species. Those producing gaharu probably include:
G. audate (Gilg.) Domke: New Guinea (Sidai, Mt. Arfak)
G. cumingia : East Nusa Tenggara (where it is known as “homa”)
G. decipiens Ding Hou: Central Celebes
G. ledermanii Domke: New Guinea (Sepik, Mt. Pfingst)
G. moluccana (Miq.) Baill. Buru
G. salicifolia Ridl.: Western Papua (Utakwa, Nabire)
G. podocarpus (Gilg.): Domke Western Papua (Ramoi, Sorong, Monep, Idenburg)
G. versteegii : Western Papua, Lesser Sunda Islands.
G. walla Gaertner. (possibly, if not syn. G. versteegii).

In addition the following genera are also associated with gaharu:

Aetoxylon
[a genus of one species] producing gaharu-buaya which includes:
A. sympetalum (W. Sarawak & Borneo) (“puk-puk” gaharu).

Enkleia

(Mabberley indicates a genus of 3 species). Species producing gaharu include:
Enkleia malaccensis (Adamantan/Nicobar Islands), Borneo (Ganung Palung).

Phaleria

(Mabberley indictes a genus of 20 species). Spp. producing gaharu in Papua New Guinea include:
P. macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. (also known as “puk-puk gaharu”).

Wikstroemia

(for which Mabberley (1998) indicates a genus of fifty species).
W. adorosaemifolia : East Nusa Tenggara (where it is known as “cue” or “sue”) Ref: (Universitas Nusa Cendana-UNC 1996).
W. polyantha : West Papua in Manojwari (where it is known as gaharu sirsak) (Mai and Suripatty 1996).
W. tenuiramis : West Papua in Manojwari (where it is known as gaharu cengkeh) (Mai and Suripatty 1996).

Gonystylus spp.

The genus Gonystylus comprises 31 species, being chiefly distributed across the Malesion tropical rainforest region, extending to Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Fiji (Tawan 1999). Most of the taxonomic descriptions of the Gonystylus genus has been provided by the work of Airy Shaw from 1946-1973, featured across a number of editions of the Kew Bulletin, and in two articles of the Flora Malesiana Soc. Lower quality gaharu eminating from Gonystylus spp. has been mentioned by Wollenberg (2001).
G. bancanus (Miq.) Kurz. Better known as ramin.
G. macrophyllus

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Latar Belakang Pokok Gaharu

Pokok Gaharu atau dikenali dalam Bahasa Ingris sebagai Agarwood adalah pokok dalam family Thymelaeceae. Pokok yang telah matang akan membesar sehingga 40 meter tinggi dan berdiameter 40cm. Pokok gaharu di hutan semulajadi mula mengeluarkan resin gaharu pada usia 20 hingga 45 tahun, bergantung pada ketahanan pokok dan tindakbalas kecederaan pokok.

Pokok gaharu amat diminati kerana dapat menghasilkan aroma yang wangi dan menyenangkan apabila dibakar kayunya. Mengikut data yang dikeluarkan pada Persidangan Gaharu Dunia pertama di Vietnam terdapat 16 spesis dari genus Aquilaria yang mempunyai nilai komersil yang tinggi.

BERIKUT ADALAH JENIS-JENIS AGRAWOOD MENGIKUT RANKING

1. AQUILARIA SUBINTEGRA, Found at Thailand
2. AQUILARIA CRASSNA, Found at Thailand, Cambodia, Loas, Vietnam
3. AQUILARIA MALACCENSIS, Found at Thailand, India, Indonesia
4. AQUILARIA APICULATA, Found at Philippines
5. AQUILARIA BAILLONIL, Found at Thailand, Combodia, Loas, Vietnam
6. AQUILARIA BANEONSIS, Found at Vietnam
7. AQUILARIA BECCARIAN, Found at Indonesia
8. AQUILARIA BRACHYANTHA, Found at Malaysia
9. AQUILARIA CUMINGIANA, Found at Indonesia, Philippines
10.AQUILARIA FILARIA, Found at Nuegini, China
11.AQUILARIA GRANDIFLORA, Found at China
12.AQUILARIA HILATA, Found at Indonesia, Malaysia
13.AQUILARIA KHASIANA, Found at India
14.AQUILARIA MICROCAPA, Found at Indonesia, Malaysia
15.AQUILARIA ROSTRATA, Found at Malaysia
16.AQUILARIA SINENSIS, Found at China

Pokok gaharu hidup di kawasan tanah pamah sehingga ketinggian 750m dari aras laut dan memerlukan taburan hujan dan kelembapan yang tinggi. Gaharu digunakan dalam industri minyak wangi, produk perubatan, perubatan Ayurvedic, majlis keagamaan dan sebagainya.

Permintaan untuk gaharu semakin tinggi walaupun pengeluaran semakin berkurangan menyebabkan harganya semakin meningkat setiap tahun. Kebanyakan gaharu dieksport kepada. pemborong-pemborong di Singapura, Timur Tengah, Hongkong dan Taiwan.

Harganya boleh mencecah sehingga RM14-18 ribu sekilogram untuk gred Double Super. Malahan harga pasaran untuk minyak gaharu juga amat tinggi iaitu RM45 ribu/kg (kaedah penggredan kualiti kayu dan minyak masih belum dipiawaian dan bergantung kepada penjual dan pembeli).

Asia Tenggara mengeksport gaharu bernilai RM48.3 million ke Arab Saudi dan bekalan hanya memenuhi 20% daripada permintaan pasaran.

Buat masa ini, kebanyakkan gaharu dikeluarkan daripada hasil hutan dan amat terhad. Tanpa penanaman semula. spesis ini akan terus diancam kepupusan disebabkan aktiviti pengambilan gaharu.

Penanaman gaharu di Malaysia masih baru dan belum popular, tetapi di negara lain seperti Indonesia, Thailand dan Kemboja sudah lama diusahakan. Malah ia mendapat sokongan yang amat kuat daripada pihak agensi kerajaan mereka dari segi modal dan teknologi.

Keseluruhan pokok gaharu (batang, daun & akar) berguna dan dapat dikomensilkan.

Penanaman pokok gaharu sesuai dijalankan di tanah terbiar, kawasan rezab hutan simpan, kawasan pembalakan yang telah diterokai dan dijalankan secara pertanian hutan ladang dan diintegrasikan dengan pelbagai tanaman lain seperti herba dan tanaman komoditi.

Source: herbatani.com



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